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加拿大留学专家浅谈SAT语法常识(二)

2012-11-20 03:38:33  来源网站:yorkbbs

上一期的《浅谈SAT语法》的文章发表后反响很大,一些对语法不是很清楚的同学纷纷打电话或到学校与笔者咨询和探讨SAT中语法考题,让本人受宠若惊。为了回报同学们积极的学习热情,笔者再接再厉把一些基本的语法点在这期继续作一些介绍。

五 代词(PRONOUN)

在英语中,如果出现代词指代不清,就是语法错误。很多同学在自己写作文的过程中也经常犯同样的错误。

例句一 (一般指代)

Due to their recent sales growth, retail stores are increasing their stock of popular

A B C D

items. No error

E

请选出你认为错误的选项:

答案是B . 原因是这里 THEIR 出现了指代不清的情况。THEIR 可以指的是RETAIL STORES, 也可以指POPULAR ITEMS. 这样读者就会对这句话产生歧异。

例句二 (特殊指代)

That many people believe him to be the most competent and well-informed of all the candidates currently listed on the ballot.

A. That many people believe him to be

B. Many people believe him to be

C. Because many people believe him to be

D. That many people believe he is

E. That many people believe him

请选出你认为使得原句更为通畅的选项:

答案是B.本题考到了代词里的一种特殊用法。THAT放在句首作为形式主语,指代后面整个完整的一句话-主语从句。所以在本题中,这句话缺少了谓语和宾语,在结构上就显得不完整了。B选项把THAT 去掉就不会存在这样的问题了。

六 时态

例句一 (时间状语来判断时态)

By the time I graduate from College three years from now, my brother has practiced law for five years.

A has practiced

B has been practicing

C will have been practicing

D would have practice

E is practicing

请选出你认为使得原句更为通畅的选项:

正确的答案是C. 本题是经典的用时间状语来判断动词时态的。首先By the time 是完成时的标志,from now是将来时,for five years 表示时一个持续的状态。所以在这里,时态应该是将来完成进行时。

例句二 (动作先后发生的顺序来判断时态)

The client was waiting for fifteen minutes when the receptionist suddenly looked up from her work, noticed him, and informed him that his appointment had been canceled.

A The client was waiting for fifteen minutes when

B The client, having waiting for fifteen minutes, when

C Already the client was waiting for fifteen minutes when

D When the client waited for fifteen minutes

E The client had been waiting for fifteen minutes when

请选出你认为使得原句更为通畅的选项:

正确的答案是 E. 这类题型是ETS常考的时态题。动作的时态是蕴涵在题目的本身中,需要考生在做题时要注意动作先后发生的顺序。在本题中,客户的等待是发生在接待员抬头看到客户之前,而且这是一个持续的过程,所以应该用过去完成进行时来表示。

七 定语从句

例句 一

That the team with the worst record won the game easily using players whom had

A B C

previously scored only two goals came as a shock to the sports casters. No error

D E

请选出你认为错误的选项:

答案是C. 定语从句是SAT考试中必考一个知识点。考生一般对之也算比较了解,但是还是有一些注意点要时刻警惕。例如本题中,C就是错误选项。因为在修饰前面PLAYER的定语从句中,WHOM应作主语,所以要改成WHO. 本题就是在考察考生是否对WHO 和WHOM的区别有所了解,但问题是并不是所有的同学都对之非常的清楚。ETS 还经常考定语从句中的WHERE 和IN WHICH的区别,这些都是考生要熟练掌握的。顺便提一下,很多的考生认为答案是A,理由是 THE TEAM 不需要 THAT 修饰了 。其实A 选项的THAT 就是作者在开始提到的THAT 指代后面一句话作形式主语,真正的主语从句是the team with the worst record won the game easily using players whom had previously scored only two goals, 谓语动词是CAME. 这样一来,考生就应该很清楚这句话的结构了。

八 句子结构的完整性

例句 一

George Orwell’s term “doublespeak” referring to the intentional use of language to confuse or to mislead, as when one says “revenue enhancement” instead of “tax increase”

A referring to the intentional use of language

B referring to the language which is intentional used

C which refers to the intentional use of language

D refers to the intentional use of language

E is when it refers to the intentional use of language

请选出你认为使得原句更为通畅的选项:

正确的答案是 D. ETS在出题时经常给出的选项在结构上都是很不完整的,以此来迷惑考生。在这种情况下,考生必须明白一个完整的句子必须具有哪些最基本的成分。例如本题就是一个很简单的例子。原句中REFERRING 不能作谓语动词,这样的话,这句话就缺少谓语动词。而答案D很好的解决了这个问题。其他选项都不行。E 改变了句子的结构所以也不对。

九 简洁有效的原则

例句 一

The professor, after distributing samples of igneous rock, explained that this type of rock is formed under intense heat and pressure deep down there within the crust of the earth.

A deep down there within the crust of the earth.

B deep within the earth’s crust.

C deeper down there within the crust of the earth.

D deep within the earth.

E deep down there within the earth’s crust

请选出你认为使得原句更为通畅的选项

正确的答案是 B。 在上一期文章中,笔者已经谈到在SAT 的语法考试中,不是一个选项没有语法错误就是正确答案了,还要遵循笔者总结的简洁和有效的原则。这也是SAT考试中比较变态的地方。很多的同学遇到这类的问题,就会变得不知所措。本题就是一个较简单的例子。选项A和E 不对,因为他们不够简洁。C和D 改变了原句的意思-没有遵循有效的原则,所以不对。正确的答案就是 B

由于篇幅的限制,作者在这里仅仅介绍了一些主要的语法知识点,SAT语法的考试范围还是比较广泛和繁琐的。但是,笔者坚信考生在经过学校的培训或自己系统的练习和总结,SAT语法考满分还是很轻松一件事情。我们学校有很多的SAT考生已经用事实证明了这一点。(文章来自:邓肯国际学院)


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